President Donald Trump’s plan to invest $1 trillion in U.S. infrastructure with the help of public-private partnerships has hit a speed bump in Texas.

Wary of public opposition to new highway tolls, the Texas House voted on May 5 to reject a bill that would have allowed the partnerships, known as P3s, to participate in 18 highway projects costing as much as $30 billion.

The defeat leaves the second most-populous U.S. state unable to tap into the partnerships to finance the infrastructure improvements, even as Trump is proposing to expand their use.

“Clearly, we’ve kind of hampered our ability to take advantage of that in a significant way,’’ said C. Brian Cassidy, an Austin attorney who represents seven regional public authorities that Texas counties have created to do transportation projects.

The bill’s failure underscores the difficulty Trump faces in his bid to use private investment to reach $1 trillion in funding to rebuild roads, bridges, airports, veterans’ hospitals and other facilities. While P3 deals take different forms, they generally involve private investors accepting risk and responsibility for design, construction and operation of a project in return for a revenue stream made up of tolls, user fees or regular tax outlays known as “availability payments.” The White House press office declined to comment on the vote.

Unwilling Partners

Nationwide, 13 states have yet to adopt legislation authorizing some form of public-private partnership deals, according to Moody’s Investors Service, and states including Texas, New Mexico and Mississippi tried unsuccessfully to pass P3 measures this year. Now, some advocates say there aren’t enough willing public partners, and there’s too little predictability for investors.

“The president can put this out there, and I applaud him for him for doing that,’’ said Mary Peters, a consultant and former U.S. transportation secretary. “But at the end of the day, local government officials, mayors, governors, others, are going to have to step up.’’

The Trump administration may produce an outline of its infrastructure plans soon, and there may be legislation by the third quarter, Transportation Secretary Elaine Chao said in a Bloomberg Television interview on May 3. The plan is expected to include $200 billion in public spending; private investment would make up the rest of the $1 trillion in spending over 10 years, Chao has said.

Still, Democrats and even some Republicans have said P3s don’t work in rural or low-income areas that can’t support tolls or a predictable revenue stream, and Chao has said “there are many barriers to public-private partnerships.” In Texas, resistance to paying new tolls helped sink the bill that would have allowed “comprehensive development agreements,” a form of public-private partnerships, for 18 projects, including work on Interstate 635 East near Dallas.